Also, a patient may have heavy-duty conditioned reflex systems, in which natural sexual stimuli becomes the conditioned inhibitor. As a rule, most often there is formed “neurosis expectations of failure”, for example the failure of the first attempts at intercourse of life, which is undertaken in adverse conditions, gives rise to fear a repetition of failure, and leads to a vicious circle in which each subsequent attempt at steadily increasing anxiety at first makes less likely, and then eliminates the favorable completion of intimacy. In the final stages with a latent deficit of personality structure can form persistent reactive depression. It can be said that young people with little sexual experience or without such experience depend on the shape of the first failure of the initial symptom, which is usually expected, and usually has steadily materialized the fear of premature ejaculation (until ejaculation occurs before contact of genital organs) or, alternatively, non-occurrence of ejaculation, the weakness of erection etc. It should be noted that among women, the most frequent primary sexual disorders are frigidity and vaginismus. Typically, the primary sexual pathology phenomena with the progression grows psychopathology emerging in the picture neurotic, hypochondriac, senestopathic and other syndromes, according to Jennifer Berman (2008).
The treatment of such sexual disorders on the initial stage is carried out by rational psychotherapy: addressing the available erroneous sexual acts, and prior playing a stereotype, which provides an intercourse. Important is the fact, that the treatment should include all necessary for the patient and his partner elements: frictions, ejaculation, and orgasm. In some cases, psychotherapy is useful to combine the usage of symptomatic drugs. As a rule, the late stages of the pathological process require a phased implementation of a comprehensive treatment policy, based on a detailed study of personality and sexual experience for both partners: after the preliminary psychotherapeutic and medical (in some cases, physical therapy) training is conducted the main stage of sexual rehabilitation.
Also, I would like to pay attention to the consistent mechanism of the sexual disorders formation. According to Sandra R. Leiblum (April 16, 2010), sexual attraction is formed in the course of postnatal ontogeny and the interaction between the socio-psychological factors and biological soil, which is often distorted in the pre-natal period. The most fully is explained the mechanism of the sexual disorders formation of the diagnosis concept, which considers sexual disorders as a result of distortions of individual psychosexual development in the postnatal development. Moreover, violations of the sexual differentiation of brain structures during fetal development may lead to transsexualism and sex-role strain behavior. Personality traits or psychological disorders, the influence of micro social environment, distorted sex-role behavior, and violations of the pace and timing of psychosexual development (precocious or delayed the formation of sexuality) – are the main factors that result from complex interactions which shaped sexual disorders.
As a matter of fact, treatment of sexual perversion presents considerable difficulties and it is appropriate only when the patient has a strong emphasis on therapy. It should be a lengthy and complex, to include a variety of psychotherapeutic techniques and focus not only on the repayment of craving and the formation of an adequate, but also to overcome communication disorders and learning to communicate with persons of the opposite sex. In order to temporarily reduce craving may be used antipsychotics. As a rule, hormones affect only the expression of desire, without affecting to orientation, and therefore their use may exacerbate the severity of illness. Prognosis in most cases is questionable. It can be said that prevention of distortions includes the prevention of various pathogenic effects, which contribute to the distortion of sexual desire, and it is carried out in three directions: first, early diagnosis and prompt treatment of child and adolescent mental health, causing premature psychosexual development, and secondly, from an early age prevention of communication disorders between children, and thirdly, the prevention of corruption and abuse, including access to pornographic publications.
In this part of the essay I would like to consider more closely the perversions as manifestation of sexual disorders. As a matter of fact, perversion (sexual perversion, paraphilia) – is violation of human psycho-sexual orientation, that is manifested in an unusual orientation of the sexual desire. Orientation determines the choice of libido desire objects, age and gender, as well as a certain style of sex-role behavior for themselves and for the partner. As a rule, experts divide sexual perversion into four groups. According to Charles J. Shields (December 2000), the first group includes the objective perversion, which is characterized by the choice of unusual or even strange object of sexual desire.
- Narcissism (on behalf of the mythical youth Narcissus, who fell in love with his reflection) – is the orientation of sexual desire in himself attracted to admiring his body, accompanied by sexual arousal. Persons with a psychosexual orientation admiring their body, stroking him contemplate themselves in the mirror, and usually masturbating. In this case, masturbation can not be regarded as a form autoerotism, since it is only a surrogate form of sexual activity and by itself does not reflect the orientation of sexual desire.
- Exhibitionism – is a way of getting sexual satisfaction from exposure of genitals in front of representatives of either sex. Occurs usually among men. Exhibitionism is a typical substitution perversion due to difficulties in communicating with persons of the opposite sex. As a fact, great importance for the exhibitionist has a scare process for the people to whom it suddenly appears, or the fear of possible punishment.
- Voyeurism – is the attraction to spying for intimate relationships, nudity, dressing, urination and defecation of persons’ preferred sex. As a rule, voyeurism is accompanied by masturbation. As a rule, voyeurism plays a significant role in such perversion pluralism, in which intimate relationships of members of the group, consisting of three or more people spend in front of each other. As a fact, voyeurism includes overvalued and passionate pornography – intentional, grossly naturalistic, deliberately demonstrative image (description, display) of the physiological and anatomical aspects of the diverse options of sexual activity, as well as various aspects of the implementation of sexual deviation and perversion. Pornography may be found in the literature, visual arts, theater, cinema, etc.
- Fetishism – is the erection of a certain cult of fetish and sexual attraction to it, accompanied by sexual excitement. As a fetish may be certain parts of the body (breasts, legs, hair, genitals, etc.) or toilet articles (underwear, handkerchiefs, clothing, shoes, etc.). Toilet articles may be second-hand and new. As a rule, in fetishism there is seen the vicarious nature of perversion. Fetish usually symbolizes and stands for a particular object of love, or the collective image of the preferred object on principle “instead of the whole”. Overcoming difficulties in receiving fetish often are the particular delight. Sexual satisfaction is achieved by smell, touch, by applying to the genitals, or putting it in the bed, the desired object in conjunction with masturbation.
- Zoophile – is a sexual attraction to animals satisfaction by sexual contact with them. Objects of desire are usually pets. As a rule, in most cases zoophile is caused by substitution and prolonged isolation from the opposite sex at an affordable contact with animals.
- Necrophilia – is sexual attraction to corpses, committing sexual acts with them. As a rule, necrophilia occurs much less often than other perversion. It should be noted that the combination of sadism and necrophilia is known as necrosadism.
According to Charles J. Shields (December 2000), the second group includes age perversion. For them, the main criterion is the age of the objects of attraction, among them are:
- Pedophilia – is the attraction to children. There are distinguished three groups of people, including frequent pedophilia: teens who in intimidation and threats forced children to the sexual contact; middle aged married and single men who have sexual problems; elderly men living alone and suffering from sexual disorders.
- Ephebophilia – is a sexual attraction to adolescence person. Typically, cases of such contacts are rare due to the secretive behavior of teenagers.
- Gerontophilia – is the attraction to elderly persons.
The third group includes disorders of psychosexual orientation by sex object:
- Homosexuality – is a sexual attraction to persons of the same sex, rather than the opposite. There are also those with an attraction to both sexes (bisexuality).
The fourth group consists of sex-role perversion. They are closely connected with the stereotype of sex-role behavior:
- Sadism – is obtaining sexual satisfaction from inflicting pain to your partner in one form or another, ranging from insults, swearing, threats and humiliation, still bites, beatings and scourging. As a fact, the maximum stimulation is achieved at the sight of the agony of the victim.
- Masochism – is a sexual arousal and satisfaction achieved by moral humiliation and physical suffering inflicted by a partner.
The other issue in this area is masturbation – it is a surrogate form of sexual satisfaction through the stimulation of erogenous zones (usually genital) and culminating in orgasm. As a rule, masturbation is practiced during the period of youthful hyper sexuality as a compensatory option of sexual satisfaction, caused by the awakening of the sexual sphere when the individual has not yet reached social maturity and independence. In some cases, masturbation may be seen as a painful distortion of the drive or reveal the existence of any unrealizable perversion if it is the preferred form of sexual gratification of an adult person having the opportunity to make a normal heterosexual intercourse. Masturbation in youthful period of hyper sexuality is terminated with the start of sexual activity in most cases without negative consequences, but the anxiety and highly sensitive individuals may experience transient difficulties in early sexual activity.
It can be said that in many countries (mostly Islamic) homosexuality is punished and it is against the law. However, other sexual perversions do not include specific articles of the Criminal Code, but may be subject to the articles of punishing torture, sexual intercourse with minors, indecent assault. Sexual deviation – is a deviation from accepted (within the ethnic culture, etc.) forms of sexual behavior. In contrast, sexual perversion is the characteristic of normal sexuality, and pathology does not usually play the role of accessories in sexual activity.
It should be noted that perversions often do not occur in isolation and represent a variety of combinations and mix form. According to Sexual disorders and dysfunctions (2008), there are many theories attempting to explain the causes and mechanisms of perversion, but none of them give a coherent picture. At this stage the most adequate is a diagnosis concept of sexual disorders, during which there are formed three main components of human sexuality: sexual identity, gender roles and sexual desire (psychosexual orientation). It can be said that psychosexual development is influenced by both biological and socio-psychological factors, and represents one of the parties to the mental development of man. Biological factors in the prenatal period are determined by the sexual differentiation of gonads and the brain structures responsible for sexual behavior, maternal instinct, aggressiveness, etc., and they provide postnatal sexual development and the energy potential of libido. Socio-psychological factors (psychological personality traits influence micro-social environment, education, experience gained, etc.) affect the formation of sexual identity and sex-role behavior and determine the direction of sexual desire. It should be noted that the diagnosis concept examines the concept of perversion as a result of hypertrophy and consolidate individual manifestations of psychosexual development, inherent in its early stages.
With the aim of effective diagnosis of above mentioned deceases psychologists have to have a thorough study of the dynamics of psychosexual development and an objective history. Psychological techniques help in identifying personality characteristics and deviations in the sex-role behavior, but practically useless for determining the direction of attraction. As a fact, the only more or less objective method of identifying areas is following: patients demonstrate a standard set of color slides of nude men, women, children and elderly persons. Special sensors record the changes in the penis or vagina. Using these techniques experts can identify homosexuality, sadism, pedophilia and exhibitionism.
According to Peter J. Fagan, Paul R. McHugh (December 10, 2003), the treatment of such deceases involves considerable difficulties and appropriate only when the patient has a strong emphasis on therapy. Treatment should be long and complex, include a variety of psychotherapeutic techniques and to be directed not only at the extinction of desire and altered the formation of an adequate, but also to overcome the difficulties of communication. Prevention should be aimed at early detection and timely correction of violations of psychosexual development, to prevent violations of communication and learning to communicate with persons of the opposite sex, the prevention of corruption and abuse of children and adolescents (including preventing access to pornographic publications). Diagnosis of specific forms of sexual disorders is characterized by extreme complexity and diversity, as well as their treatment requires mandatory counseling sexologist.
To sum it up, I would like to define that sexual disorders – are in the general psychiatry category, which covers all disorders of sexual behavior and functioning. As a rule, sexual disorders include sexual misconduct and sexual dysfunction. Without any doubts, sexual disorders have enormous impact on human behavior. Moreover, often, sexual disorders lead to sexual preventions, among them are: narcissism, exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishism, zoophile, necrophilia, pedophilia, ephebophilia, gerontophilia, homosexuality, sadism and masochism. Of course, such sexual preventions in turn lead to victim appearance, who get very serious psychological trauma as a result of the attacks by people with sexual disorders. It should be noted that treatment of people with sexual disorders is quite possible, although it requires considerable effort and time, from the patient and from the psychiatrist as well.
Charles J. Shields (December 2000). Sexual disorders (Encyclopedia of Psychological Disorders). Chelsea House Publications. 89 pages. Print.
Jennifer Berman (2008). Psychology of sexual dysfunction. Retrieved February 23, 2011 from http://www.healthyplace.com/sex/main/psychology-of-sexual-dysfunction/menu-id-66/
Peter J. Fagan, Paul R. McHugh (December 10, 2003). Sexual disorders: perspectives on diagnosis and treatment. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 176 pages. Print.
Sandra R. Leiblum (April 16, 2010). Treating sexual desire disorders: a clinical casebook. The Guilford Press. 257 pages. Print.
Sexual disorders and dysfunctions (2008). Retrieved February 23, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/disorders/sexual/index.html
Sexual disorders for psychology. (2007). Retrieved February 23, 2011 from http://www.docstoc.com/docs/924725/SEXUAL-DISORDERS-for-psychology